VIC Model References

Primary Historical Reference

Liang, X., D. P. Lettenmaier, E. F. Wood, and S. J. Burges (1994), A simple hydrologically based model of land surface water and energy fluxes for general circulation models, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D7), 14415–14428, doi:10.1029/94JD00483.

Primary Reference for VIC-5

Hamman, J. J., Nijssen, B., Bohn, T. J., Gergel, D. R., and Mao, Y.: The Variable Infiltration Capacity model version 5 (VIC-5): infrastructure improvements for new applications and reproducibility, Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3481-3496,, 2018.

Other Historical References

Adam, J.C., and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2008: Application of new precipitation and reconstructed streamflow products to streamflow trend attribution in Northern Eurasia, J. Climate, 21(8), 1807-1828.

Andreadis, K., P. Storck, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2009: Modeling snow accumulation and ablation processes in forested environments, Water Resour. Res., 45, W05429, doi:10.1029/2008WR007042.

Bohn, T. J., B. Livneh, J. W. Oyler, S. W. Running, B. Nijssen, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2013a: Global evaluation of MTCLIM and related algorithms for forcing of ecological and hydrological models, Agr. Forest. Meteorol., 176, 38-49, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.03.003.

Bohn, T. J., E. Podest, R. Schroeder, N. Pinto, K. C. McDonald, M. Glagolev, I. Filippov, S. Maksyutov, M. Heimann, X. Chen, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2013b: Modeling the effects of surface moisture heterogeneity on wetland carbon fluxes in the West Siberian Lowland, Biogeosciences, 10, 6559-6576, doi:10.5194/bg-10-6559-2013.

Bohn, T. J., and E. R. Vivoni, 2016: Process-based characterization of evapotranspiration sources in the North American monsoon region, Water Resour. Res., 52(1), 358-384, doi:10.1002/2015WR017934.

Bowling, L. C., J. W. Pomeroy and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2004: Parameterization of blowing snow sublimation in a macroscale hydrology model, J. Hydromet., 5(5), 745-762, doi:10.1175/1525-7541.

Bowling, L.C. and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2010: Modeling the effects of lakes and wetlands on the water balance of Arctic Environments, J. Hydromet., 11, 276-295, doi:10.1175/2009JHM1084.1.

Cherkauer, K. A. and D. P. Lettenmaier, 1999: Hydrologic effects of frozen soils in the upper Mississippi River basin, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D16), 19,599-19,610.

Cherkauer, K. A., L. C. Bowling, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2003: Variable infiltration capacity cold land process model updates, Global and Planetary Change, 38, 151-159.

Gao, H., Q. Tang, X. Shi, C. Zhu, T. J. Bohn, F. Su, J. Sheffield, M. Pan, D. P. Lettenmaier, and E. F. Wood, 2010: Water Budget Record from Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model. In Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for Terrestrial Water Cycle Data Records (unpublished).

Hamman, J., B. Nijssen, M. Brunke, J. Cassano, A. Craig, A. DuVivier, M. Hughes, D.P. Lettenmaier, W. Maslowski, R. Osinski, A. Roberts, and X. Zeng, 2016: Land surface climate in the Regional Arctic System Model. Journal of Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0415.1.

Liang, X., 1994: A Two-Layer Variable Infiltration Capacity Land Surface Representation for General Circulation Models, Water Resour. Series, TR140, 208 pp., Univ. of Washington, Seattle.

Liang, X., D. P. Lettenmaier, E. F. Wood, 1996: One-dimensional Statistical Dynamic Representation of Subgrid Spatial Variability of Precipitation in the Two-Layer Variable Infiltration Capacity Model, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D16) 21,403-21,422.

Liang, X., E. F. Wood, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 1996: Surface soil moisture parameterization of the VIC-2L model: Evaluation and modifications, Global and Planetary Change, 13, 195-206.

Liang, X., E. F. Wood, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 1999: Modeling ground heat flux in land surface parameterization schemes, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D8), 9581-9600.

Liang, X., and Z. Xie, 2001: A new surface runoff parameterization with subgrid-scale soil heterogeneity for land surface models, Advances in Water Resources, 24(9-10), 1173-1193.

Streamflow Routing Model References

Primary Historical Reference

Lohmann, D., R. Nolte-Holube, and E. Raschke, 1996: A large-scale horizontal routing model to be coupled to land surface parametrization schemes, Tellus, 48(A), 708-721.

Lohmann, D., E. Raschke, B. Nijssen and D. P. Lettenmaier, 1998: Regional scale hydrology: I. Formulation of the VIC-2L model coupled to a routing model, Hydrol. Sci. J., 43(1), 131-141.

Other Historical References

Lohmann, D., E. Raschke, B. Nijssen, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 1998: Regional Scale Hydrology: II. Application of the VIC-2L Model to the Weser River, Germany, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 43(1), 143-157.

Nijssen, B.N., D.P. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, S.W. Wetzel, and E.F. Wood, 1997: Streamflow simulation for continental-scale river basins, Water Resour. Res., 33(4), 711-724.

Selected Application References

Abdulla, F.A., D.P. Lettenmaier, E.F. Wood and J.A. Smith, 1996: Application of a macroscale hydrologic model to estimate the water balance of the Arkansas-Red river basin, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D3), 7449-7459.

Adam, J.C. and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2003: Adjustment of global gridded precipitation for systematic bias, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D9), 1-14, doi:10.1029/2002JD002499.

Adam, J.C., E.A. Clark, D.P. Lettenmaier, and E.F. Wood, 2006: Correction of Global Precipitation Products for Orographic Effects, J. Clim., 19(1), 15-38, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3604.1.

Beyene, T., D.P. Lettenmaier, and P. Kabat, 2009: Hydrologic impacts of climate change on the Nile River basin: Implications of the 2007 IPCC climate scenarios, Climatic Change, online first, doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9693-0.

Cuo, L., D.P. Lettenmaier D.P., M. Alberti, and J.E. Richey, 2009: Effects of a century of land cover and climate change on the hydrology of Puget Sound basin, Hydrological Processes, 23, 907-933.

Gao, H., T. J. Bohn, E. Podest, K. C. McDonald, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2011: On the causes of the shrinking of Lake Chad, Env. Res. Lett., 6, 034021, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034021.

Haddeland, I., D.P. Lettenmaier, and T. Skaugen, 2006a: Reconciling simulated moisture fluxes resulting from alternate hydrologic model time steps and energy budget closure assumptions, J. Hydromet., 7(3), 355-370, doi:10.1175/JHM496.1.

Haddeland, I., D.P. Lettenmaier, and T. Skaugen, 2006b: Effects of irrigation on the water and energy balances of the Colorado and Mekong river basins, J. Hydrol., 324(1-4), 210-223, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.09.028.

Hamlet, A.F. and D.P. Lettenmaier, 1999: Effects of Climate Change on Hydrology and Water Resources in the Columbia River Basin, Am. Water Res. Assoc., 35(6), 1597-1623.

Hamlet, A.F. and D.P. Lettenmaier, 1999: Columbia River Streamflow Forecasting Based on ENSO and PDO Climate Signals, ASCE J. of Water Res. Planning and Mgmt., 125(6), 333-341.

Hamlet, A.F. and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2000: Long-Range Climate Forecasting and its Use for Water Management in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America,J. Hydroinformatics, 02.3, 163-182.

Leung, L.R., A.F. Hamlet, D.P. Lettenmaier and A. Kumar, 1999: Simulations of the ENSO Hydroclimate Signals in the Pacific Northwest Columbia River Basin, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 80(11), 2313-2329.

Liang, X., E. F. Wood, D. Lohmann, D.P. Lettenmaier, and others, 1998: The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) Phase-2c Red-Arkansas River Basin Experiment: 2. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Energy Fluxes, J. Global and Planetary Change, 19, 137-159.

Livneh B, E.A. Rosenberg, C. Lin, B. Nijssen, V. Mishra, K. Andreadis, E.P. Maurer, and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2013: A long-term hydrologically based data set of land surface fluxes and states for the conterminous United States: Updates and extensions, Journal of Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00508.1.

Lohmann, D. E. Raschke, B. Nijssen and D.P. Lettenmaier, 1998: Regional scale hydrology: II. Application of the VIC-2L model to the Weser river, Germany, Hydrol. Sci. J., 43(1), 143-158.

Mattheussen, B., R.L. Kirschbaum, I.A. Goodman, G.M. O'Donnell and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2000: Effects of land cover change on streamflow in the interior Columbia river basin (USA and Canada), Hydrol. Process., 14, 867-885.

Maurer, E.P., G.M. O'Donnell, D.P. Lettenmaier, and J.O. Roads, 2001: Evaluation of the Land Surface Water Budget in NCEP/NCAR and NCEP/DOE Reanalyses using an Off-line Hydrologic Model. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D16), 17,841-17,862.

Maurer, E.P., G.M. O'Donnell, D.P. Lettenmaier, and J.O. Roads, 2001: Evaluation of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Water and Energy Budgets using Macroscale Hydrologic Simulations, In: Land Surface Hydrology, Meteorology, and Climate: Observations and Modeling, AGU series in Water Science and Applications, V. Lakshmi, J. Albertson, and J. Schaake eds.,pp. 137-158.

Mishra, V., K. A. Cherkauer, and L. C. Bowling, 2010: Parameterization of Lakes and Wetlands for Energy and Water Balance Studies in the Great Lakes Region, J. Hydromet., 11(5), 1057-1082.

Munoz-Arriola, F., R. Avissar, C. Zhu, and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2009: Sensitivity of the Water resources of Rio Yaqui Basin, Mexico to agriculture extensification under multi-scale climate conditions, Water Resour. Res. 45, W00A20, doi:10.1029/2007WR006783.

Nijssen, B.N., D.P. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, S.W. Wetzel, and E.F. Wood, 1997: Streamflow simulation for continental-scale river basins, Water Resour. Res., 33(4), 711-724.

Nijssen, B.N., R. Schnur and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2001: Global retrospective estimation of soil moisture using the Variable Infiltration Capacity land surface model, 1980-1993, J. Clim., 14(8), 1790-1808, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<1790:GREOSM>2.0.CO;2.

Nijssen, B.N., G.M. O'Donnell, D.P. Lettenmaier and E.F. Wood, 2001: Predicting the discharge of global rivers, J. Clim., 14(15), 3307-3323, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3307:PTDOGR>2.0.CO;2.

Nijssen, B.N., G.M. O'Donnell, A.F. Hamlet, and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2001: Hydrologic sensitivity of global rivers to climate change, Climatic Change, 50(1-2), 143-175, doi:10.1023/A:1010616428763.

Shi, X., M. Wild, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2010: Surface radiative fluxes over the pan-Arctic land region: Variability and trends. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22104, doi:10.1029/2010JD014402.

Shukla, S., A. C. Steinemann, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2010: Drought Monitoring for Washington State: Indicators and Applications, Journal of Hydrometeorology, EOR, doi:10.1175/2010JHM1307.1.

Tang, Q., H. Gao, P. Yeh, T. Oki, F. Su, and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2010: Dynamics of terrestrial water storage change from satellite and surface observations and modeling, Journal of Hydrometeorology 11, 156-170. doi:10.1175/2009JHM1152.1.

Wood, E. F., Lettenmaier, D., Liang, X., Nijssen, B., & Wetzel, S. W. (1997). Hydrological modeling of continental-scale basins. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 25(1), 279-300.

Other References

Bras, R. F., 1990: Hydrology, an introduction to hydrologic science, Addison-Wesley.

Brooks, R., and R. Corey, 1964: Hydraulic properties of porous media, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA, 37 pp.

Farouki, O. T., 1981: The thermal properties of soils in cold regions, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 5(1), 67-75, doi:10.1016/0165-232X(81)90041-0.

Francini, M., and M. Pacciani, 1991: Comparative analysis of several conceptual rainfall-runoff models, J. Hydrol., 122, 161-219.

Hostetler, S. W., and P. J. Bartlein, 1990: Simulation of lake evaporation with application to modeling lake level variations of Harney-Malheur lake, Oregon, Wat. Res. Resear., 26(10), 2603-2612.

Hostetler, S. W., 1991: Simulation of lake ice and its effect on the late-Pleistocene evaporation rate of Lake Lahontan, Climate Dynamics, 6, 43-48.

Hostetler, S. W., Bartlein, P. J., Clark, P. U., Small, E. E., and A. M. Soloman, 2000: Simulated influences of Lake Agassiz on the climate of central North America 11,000 years ago, Nature, 405(6784), 334-337.

Ying Fan, E. Wood, M.L. Baeck, and J. Smith. 1996. Fractional Coverage of Rainfall Over a Grid: Analyses of NEXRAD data over the southern Plains. Water Resour. Res., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 2787-2802, September 1996

Yapo, P., H. Gupta, and S. Sorooshian, 1998: Multi-objective global optimization for hydrologic models, J. Hydrology, 204(1), 83-97.